Friday, September 18, 2015

Social Evolution is the Epigenetics of the Virulent Overall Physiological Remodeling

By: Dr. Ron Shane, Dr. Ron Klatz, Dr. Dennis Lox and Justin Tang
Assisted By: Alva Liang, Benjamin Lee, Katherine Chang, Nikki Kimura, Laura Valenzuela, Safwanul Haque

         The human genotype represents 250 million years of biological evolution. However, the contemporary phenotype is manifesting an insidious desecration in terms of optimizing its homeostasis. The 21st century is a pejorative execution of genetic remodeling where the phenotype is exuding a non-homeostatic physiology as well as sub-optimal cortical machinations. Physiological malaise has been inordinately escalated in the preceding 40 years; and higher cortical aesthetics has become an abysmal dream. For example, the incidence of cancer has increased over 37% in the preceding 15 years. D. Max Parkins has stated the following regarding the increase in neoplasia: "The most recent estimate, that for 1990,4 suggests a total of 8.1 million new cases, divided almost exactly between developed and developing countries. This represents an increase of about 37% since our first estimates 15 years ago for 1975, a rate of growth (2.1% per year) that is faster than that of the world population (1.7% per year)."1 Sublime sentient revelry has plummeted into a nonsensical labyrinth of post-modernism. Arthur Rimbaud symbolism in his 19th century work entitled Season in Hell cannot typify the scurrilous engulfment of current ratiocination or the absurdity of the delirium of consciousness that is beyond Genet’s The Balcony.2

Human consciousness displays now a pageant more comedic than Shakespeare’s farcical dumb shows. Is this culturally contrived dysregulation of the central nervous system’s executive circuitry a volitional imperative or is it a serendipitous meandering where humans can become more concordant with their electronic gadgetry related to a future cultural landscape of artificial intelligence? The contemporary phenotype is wretchedly overweight, uncoordinated, lethargic, and plagued with psychiatric morbidities.3, 4 The executive activities of this moribund phenotype mimic the conceptual ruminations of an average junior high student. This thesis’s looking glass of reality is fumed by a phantasmagoria of mirages. Karl Marx in his Das Kapital realized that the industrial revolution was not necessarily a progression in terms of human quality of life, but more of a venomous pathogenesis which ravages the actual post-translational activities of all the body’s cell lineages. This philosopher’s vision has become an invidious reality. There are not any exquisite reviews which have been written explicating how the quest for excessive financial opulence is engendering aberrant cortical dysregulation. Marx was the only philosopher whose behest was cautionary regarding the deleterious synergy between the industrial revolution and capitalism. Marx’s philosophical vision is an impossibility in the 21st century. The idealism of communism has been abnegated by the global economic imperative defined by Machiavelli in his work entitled “The Prince”. 5, 6

The savage tyranny of global capitalism is a kind of mental feudalism where the human entity is ruinously psychologically enslaved or neurologically remodeled for excessive consumerism. Obesity is a necessary requisite which is reflective of the contemporary human’s cortical aberrant mental symmetry in order to be purblind ostensible consumers to procure with invidious aberrance artifices, which have no heuristic merit to the body’s endogenous hedonics. The 19th century German and British Romantics were privy to the perniciousness of the blending of capitalism and the industrial revolution. These luminous visionaries did not comprehend how this cultural phenomenon would be vitriolic to the body’s physiology.

Charles Darwin likewise was not cognizant as to how the environment either induces robustness in the genotype or is squalidly deleterious to the phenotype. There are not any scientific reviews which denote how current environmental changes directly affect the pathogenicity of the overall human organism’s physiological remodeling. The seething malaise of human machinations is certainly more profound than enigmatic ideologies or theosophies; and it involves billions of axons and dendritic connections which have created nefarious super circuits that modulate the human species’ behavioral pejorative action sequences.

Three-hundred years ago, P.V. Shelley wrote that: “measure the circumference and sound the depths of human nature with a comprehensive and all-penetrating spirit…”7 Murray Krieger states the following: “it develops, as in the works of Becket or Camus forms that are anti-forms.”8 Why has human consciousness become so retrograde from the sublime intelligence characterized by the Greeks, Romans, and the Renaissance? The foibles of perception is most comedic in post-modernism where the inane becomes a pageant of consciousness beyond what Krieger discerns as the anti-forms or where the portal of apprehension has become the citadel of dismay to human consciousness. What is so compelling regarding our environmental milieu which is causing cortical pathways to become so aberrantly remodeled where the inspiration of mental quintessence cannot be apprehended? Shakespeare writes: “to the celestial and my soul’s idol, the most beautified ophelia”9 Shelley purports that the marvelment of seething consciousness or in his rhetoric “hierophants of an unapprehended inspiration” are blighted from higher actualization in the squalid mental landscape of the 21st century. The quagmire of debase monolithic perception engulfs the skewed cortical symmetry of the human phenotype. Social evolution is the physic of this invidious diminution of the human genotype.

The contemporary university education has become ruefully mitigated where literature and philosophy or the sublimity of perception is replaced by puerile conception or the sociology of vacuousness. Krieger espoused 50 years ago that “literature recoils from the withering authority of a new Apollo but does surrender itself wholly to the frenzy of Dionysus.”10 Art is reflective of human consciousness or the sagacious passion of perception. Currently, undergraduates would not comprehend the body’s Dionysian Revelry or the enfetterment within the endless ruminations of Apollonian consciousness. Dr. Steven Mingus at a recent stem cell conference 2015 in San Francisco purported that the debilitating aesthetics of contemporary culture can be viewed as a degenerative pathogenesis enabling the compromised human phenotype to more readily able to emerge with technological algorithms or artificial intelligence.

There have been many scientific films which speculate that human physiology will be merging in the ensuing decades with artificial intelligent technologies where endogenous implants will be interactive with organ physiology; and exogenous complex strategies will be utilized to modulate cortical executive function. Human evolution will engender phenotypes which are adaptive to the dominance of these enigmatic technologies. These sophisticated electronic protocols are necessary to control the escalation of the global human population.

Christian Roberts et. al 2009 found an overwhelming correlation between BMI and the lack of fitness in children, which translated into lower test scores in math, reading, and language. He writes the following: “Students whose mile run/walk times exceeded California Fitnessgram standards or whose BMI exceeded Centers for Disease Control sex- and age-specific body weight standards scored lower on California standardized math, reading, and language tests than students with desirable BMI status or fitness level.”11 Children and adults are excessively disinclined to lose weight and exercise; and have been modulated to inordinately consume which appears to dominate their conscious volition.

Recently Peter Gray has pointed out that there is an escalation in psychopathology as a function of a deficiency in the play patterns of children. There is a predominant disinclination for children to engage in artistic play as they now prefer to be involved in electronic technologies. Peter Gray states the following pertaining to the relationship between lack of play and the overexpression of various kinds of psychopathology: “Play, especially social play with other children, serves a variety of developmental functions, all of which promote children’s mental health. In the absence of such play, children fail to acquire the social and emotional skills that are essential for healthy psychological
development.”12 Dr. Roberts further purports that “low aerobic fitness is common among youth and various ethnic groups; and low aerobic fitness level predicts performance on standard tests across ethnic groups.”13 This theorist does not comprehend how cultural factors are inducing epigenetic changes in executive functions in the frontal orbital cortex which is then being translated to peripheral bodily abnormalities; and this overall neurological pathogenesis is manifesting in ubiquitous pejorative changes in creativity, interior consciousness, as well as complex mental machination. Thus, children who are obese, mentally deficient, as well as disinclined to exercise represents the dysregulated phenotype who in Marxian terms, has been remodeled to be an exquisite consumer; and they are enfettered in a quagmire of social pressure engendered by the synergy of technological strategies and obdurate global capitalism.

Tomporowski 2008 has argued that robust involvement with exercise is essential for optimal executive function as well as complex mental activities. This theorist states the following: "Similar to adults, exercise facilitates children’s executive function (i.e., processes required to select, organize, and properly initiate goal-directed actions). Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing those aspects of children’s mental functioning central to cognitive development."14

Jytte Halkjær et. al 2012 has demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between obesity and intelligence. He writes the following: “Education and intelligence, analyzed separately, were inversely related to BMI changes in both groups and to the development of obesity in the non-obese group.”15 It is likely that visceral bodily adiposity is causing the overexpression of virulent cytokines, and even exosomes which then negatively impacts cortical circuitry related to higher executive functionality and sophisticated rationalization. There is no current study which demonstrates the relationship between low intelligence engendered by chronic lethargy and obesity which is governed by monolithic ubiquitous commercialism. In hypothetical terms, errant commercialism should be escalated by lowering intelligence and obesity as well as lethargy. Stanley J. Colcombe 2004 has suggested that vigorous exercise has effects on pre-cortical and cortical functionality, and the overall epigenetic salubriousness of the central nervous system. He states that: "highly fit (Study 1) or aerobically trained (Study 2) persons show greater task-related activity in regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices that are involved in spatial selection and inhibitory functioning, when compared with low-fit (Study 1) or nonaerobic control (Study 2) participants. […] These data suggest that increased cardiovascular fitness can affect improvements in the plasticity of the aging human brain, and may serve to reduce both biological and cognitive senescence in humans."16 There is increasing evidence that human lethargy is having consequential effects on brain neurophysiology as well as the robustness of bodily homeostatic physiology.

In Darwinian terms, the intellectually compromised lethargic obese phenotype is actually being reinforced by explicit and implicit cultural mandates. There is some likelihood that optimizing the pathogenic human phenotype would engender a global economic disaster. Thus, there are ubiquitous benefits to the global economic structure for humans to be ruefully, homeostatically dysregulated as any enhancement in this species’ physiology would be destructive to our contemporary cultural dynamics. There is a problematic synergy between the overzealous compromised human physiology and economic prosperity. Andreas Plagemann 2009 found that overfeeding in the youthful phenotype induces a greater likelihood of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other pathologies in the later stages of the life cycle. He asserts that "Our findings reveal overfeeding as an epigenetic risk factor of obesity programming and consecutive diabetic and cardiovascular disorders and diseases, in terms of the metabolic syndrome." 17 Furthermore, Sridevi Devaraj likewise has discerned that a diet high in fatty acids induces in a systemic manner mitochondrial oxidative stress; and is the etiology for many debilitating pathologies. He states the following regarding this lifestyle mediated phenomenon: “Thus, in subjects with MetS, consumption of an energy-dense, fatty meal (FFS breakfast) results in increased postprandial oxidative stress compared to a heart-healthy meal (AHA)."18

Dr. Halkjær further purports the following: “Education and intelligence, analyzed separately, were inversely related to BMI changes in both groups and to the development of obesity in the non-obese group.”19 The global culture needs only a small portion of the population to be technologically educated; and the majority of humans are being phenotypically modulated to be robust consumers who are fraught with medical comorbidities as well as diminished cortical proclivities. Rousseau in his writings on political theory asserted that the abnegation of feudalism would provide a judicious liberation to the human spirit. Unfortunately, he was not privy to the perils of capitalism or the problematic imperatives of the merchant class.
Paul Trout in 1997 stated that a college education has been dramatically “dumbed down.” A current PhD may not even be equivalent to a Bachelors of Art Degree 70 year ago. The actualization of the spirit or mental profundity is not being reinforced in our current cultural paradigm. Paul Trout writes the following: “It is bad enough that many students who enter college are underprepared, underskilled and generally dumbed down. What is worse is that more and more of them are entering college-according to UCLA’s Higher Education Research Institute – ‘increasingly disengaged from the academic experience.”20 Currently college graduates entering medical schools or PhD programs in the sciences have a thorough deficiency in their understanding of world literature, philosophy, the arts, as well as the history of higher human perception. Their conceptual skills are pathetic, and post-graduate education is more reflective of sophisticated trade schools rather than the actualization of arcane human proclivities which has no utility to the global economic marketplace. Superior students are negatively reinforced to develop their innate mental puissance. Students are bifurcated into those who can enhance technology; and the majority of individuals are relegated to being pathetic consumers. Genius towards higher perception like that of Plato, Homer, Virgil, Milton, Goethe, Shakespeare, Spenser, Keats, Shelley, Nietzsche are no longer regarded as requisite factors lauded by our contemporary cultural milieu.

It is no longer necessary for humans to contemplate the metaphysics of consciousness as reflected in the following paragraph from Shakespeare’s Hamlet: “Imperious Caesar dead and turned to clay, / might stop hole to keep the wind away. / O’ that that earth which kept the world in awe / should patch a wall to expel the winter’s flaw.”21 These furtive issues concerning human quintessence are now replaced by the human pedantry of insipid discourse. Paul Trout asserts the following regarding the decline of intellectual prowess: “they are obliged to manage the problem in much the same way as high schools did: fewer demanding courses, lighter workloads, easier assignments and tests, and more high grades (to satisfy students, improve course evaluations, and hide the decline of standards from the public.” 22 Pamela Ansburg 2001 has purported that high school students are thoroughly disinclined to be intrinsically involved with academic pursuits. She states that they expect to achieve a high grade in a course with only expending a minimum effort. Academics have become a perfunctory phenomenon where a deeper edification of consciousness has been beguiled by extrinsic peevish commercialism. Pamela Ansburg states the following: “This expectation of achievement without effort appears as early as eighth grade: adolescents have high educational and career aspirations, yet they have no intentions to behave in a manner that is consistent with achieving these goals. It is no surprise that this mismatch between expectations of success and unwillingness to work for that success continues into college.”23

Several senior university professors have remarked that graduates in literature are unable to even capture the narrative structure of either Milton or Shakespeare as they are only accustomed to comprehending the perfunctory nature of modern fiction, especially post modernism which has been depicted to be the naturalism of sumptuous pools or a kind of knavery of nonsense. Paul Trout cites university professors for being responsible for this invidious decline in the profundity of academics. He states the following: “Few professors can afford to ignore what students say about them on evaluation forms – especially when these forms are factored into administrative decisions about hiring, retention, tenure, promotion, and merit-pay…Thus, course evaluations contribute significantly to grade inflation and a dumbed-down curriculum.”24 It is evident that higher education has no intrinsic merit in contemporary American society. Huxley’s Brave New World which is a disquisition on mental totalitarian and purblind conformity depicts how the human phenotype is maliciously modulated with the intent to necessitate further adherence to imperiling technological consumerism. Humans are continuously being wretchedly dumbed down or mentally impoverished as they are hideously fraught with a bevy of comorbidities where optimal homeostasis has been replaced by overall physiological allostasis.

Henry Giroux in his 2012 text entitled “Education and the Crisis of Public Value” documents how high schools and universities have been invidiously altered to be concordant with capitalistic consciousness. This theorist purports that education is only instructing the deceptive mandates of capitalistic totalitarianism or a kind of social conditioning which virulently remodels the executive workings of the consumers’ orbital frontal cortex. Henry Giroux asserts that this vitriolic phenomenon is the volitional intent of the judicators of this Oligarchy. He writes the following: Public school teachers are now viewed as the new ‘welfare queens,’ while academics are defined less as critical intellectuals and engaged scholars than as a new class of professional entrepreneurs.”25

The crisis of obesity, lethargy, cardiovascular diseases, depression, anxiety, social isolation, anomie, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and autoimmune diseases are most likely exacerbated by lowering this species’ intellectual prodigiousness, executive functionality, as well as a desecration of its mystical puissance. Henry Giroux is depicting the Lethe consciousness or a prosaic aberration in human perception. Theatre, films dance and music as well as television programming has been wretchedly mitigated which further reinforces this culture’s invidious inanity. The current trend in the debasement of cortical executive functionality can be depicted as adipocytes engendering inflammatory degeneration where the consumer’s consciousness becomes auspiciously concordant with this current cultural milieu. Henry Giroux writes the following regarding this macabre mental quiescence: “In both public and higher education, ignorance is not merely fostered but embraced through course content whose value is almost exclusively defined through a metaphysics in which anything that can’t be quantified is considered useless.” 26 Camus and Sartre in the 20th century purported that modern human existence is absurd and meaningless. The 20th century sociologist Durkheim asserted that anomie is the pervasive emotionality of distraught and isolated humans sequestered from the body’s intrinsic sentience. Human consciousness has descended into a problematic quagmire where stupefied delirium engulfs all sagacious perception. The use of alcohol and other illicit and prescription drugs has severely increased in order for individuals to cope with the mendacious nature of our current cultural milieu. Rachel Libari 2008 has asserted that the use of heroin has doubled from 2007 to 2013. She writes the following: “Although the number of heroin users is lower than the number of users of other substances, rates of heroin use were higher in 2013 than they were a decade ago. Similarly, the number of people aged 12 or older who received treatment for heroin use during their most recent treatment in the past year has also risen from 277,000 people in 2002 to 526,000 people in 2013. The growing number of people getting treatment for heroin may stretch the capacity of treatment providers."27

The dismal conception of the human psyche is affirmed by Henry Giroux in his analysis of teachers who are defiant intellectuals against the torpidness of our aberrant educational system. He purports the following: “Teachers who think and act reflectively, ask uncomfortable questions, challenge the scripts of official power, and promote a search for the truth while encouraging pedagogy as the practice of freedom are now viewed as suspect, if not un-American.”28 The sacred Federal Reserve of the United States is not owned or even controlled by the U.S. government, but has indomitable control over the executive workings of the human central nervous system. The looking glass of our contemporary social reality is a pejorative parody or a fiendish labyrinth, which dictates and enfetters the human psyche. Our technological jungle of abhorrence is engendering moribund overall pathophysiology in the contemporary human phenotype.

Dr. Dean McHenry, the first chancellor of UC Santa Cruz authorized the creation of the PhD Program in History of Consciousness in the early 1970s with the intent to foster a scientific comprehension of arcane academic themes. This graduate program has now devolved into a tangential sociology department only focused on gender issues and ethnic contentiousness. The problematic dissolution of this graduate program represents the plummeting of intellectual prodigiousness in the 21st century. The late Norman O. Brown, a senior professor in the History of Consciousness Programs in the 1970s, and early 80s speculated that the pervasive forces of technological capitalism is abnegating the metaphysical resplendence of higher human perception. Dr. Brown writes that “art, if its object is to undo repression, and if civilization is essentially repressive, is in this sense subversion of civilization …The neurotic mechanism involves repression and a shutting of the eye of consciousness, and a resultant psychic automatism. Art does not withdraw the eye of consciousness.” 29 This professor of History of Consciousness inspired graduate students forty years ago to pursue doctorial theses explicating arcane themes pertaining to a science of mysticism. Paradoxically, the current History of Consciousness Program pejoratively parallels perfunctory subjects relevant to contemporary society or what is discerned in the popular media. Higher academic themes are pathetically obscured as arcane perception is diminished in the gyves of retrograde ratiocination. 

The intent of the History of Consciousness Program was to scientifically study in the words of Shakespeare “the poetic eye in a fine frenzy rolling, / does glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven, / as imagination bodies forth/ forms of things unknown.” 30 This intriguing graduate program is most retrograde from its original heuristic purposes, and is now encumbered in the dismal shade of inane tangential themes sequestered from arcane epistemology. The rueful diminution of overall mental resplendence has been translated in the humanities and other academic departments in most universities.

The focus of this review is to comprehend how the factors related to social evolution has pejoratively induced the human phenotype to be wretchedly physiologically compromised where lethargy and the malaise of obesity now represents the biological dynamics of the general population. Zealous commercialism now manifests in the pathogenesis of obesity as well as the overconsumption of objects which in a symbolic manner inundates closets of homes reflective as to how fatty acids engorge adipocytes. Human perception as well as the actualization of self is becoming an impossibility as intelligence is plummeting into an insidious nadir sphere. The scientific mirror of our social evolution is revealing the genesis of a phenotype which is mentally and creatively compromised, as well as fraught with many menacing medical pathologies.
The Lethe torpidness enfetters modern consciousness as the human phenotype now represents a comedic parody of its former highly evolved genotype. 20th century writers like Scott Fitzgerald and D.H. Lawrence depiction of how capitalistic materialism devastated human splendiferous quintessence as well as the desecration of the inner nature which then ruinously encompasses the body’s outward physiology has now achieved an epidemic of squalidness. The scurrilous intentionality of the global economy will continue its seething devourment of the body’s relevant homeostasis as well as other biological entities. The mirror of our social reality has gone beyond the absurdity of existentialism to the scourge of nihilism.

1.    D. Max Parkin, Paola Pisani, and J. Ferlay (2009). “Global Cancer Statistics.” Issue CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.
2.    Arthur Rimbaud (1873). “A Season in Hell.”
3.    Jacob C. Seidell (2000). “Obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes - a worldwide epidemic.” British Journal of Nutrition.
4.    Benjamin Caballero (2007). “The GLobal Epidemic of Obesity: An Overview.” Oxford Journals.
5.    Karl Marx(1867) translated by Samuel Moore (2011). “Das Kapital.” CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
6.    Niccolo Machiavelli (1532) Editted by E.R.P. Vincent and Translated by Luigi Ricci (2008). “The Prince.” Signet.
7.    P.V. Shelley (1972). “Difference of Poetry: Critical Theory since Plato. Edited by Hazard Adams. HVJ. San Diego. page 513.
8.    Murray Krieger. “The Existential Basis of Conceptual Criticism, Meditation, Language, and Vision in the Reading of Literature.” Ibid., page 1233.
9.    Shakespeare (1982). “Hamlet.” Methuen New York. page 142
10.Christian K Roberts, Benjamin Freed, William J McCarthy (2009). “Low Aerobic Fitness and Obesity Are Associated with Lower Standardized Test Scores in Children.” The Journal of Pediatrics.
11.Murray Krieger. op. cit. page 35
12.Christian K Roberts, Benjamin Freed, William J McCarthy (2009). Op. Cit.
13.Gray, Peter (2011). “The Decline of Play and the Rise of Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents.” The American Journal of Play.
14.Phillip D. Tomporowski, Catherine L. Davis, Patricia H. Miller, Jack A. Naglieri (2008). "Exercise and Children's Intelligence, Cognition, and Academic Achievement." Education Psychology Review. Volume 20 (Issue 2)
15.Jytte Halkjær,Claus Holst, and Thorkild I.A. Sorensen (2012). “Intelligence Test Score and educational Level in Relation to BMI Changes and Obesity. Obesity Research
16.Stanley J. Colcombe, Arthur F. Kramer, Kirk I. Erickson, Paige Scalf, Edward McAuley, Neal J. Cohen, Andrew Webb, Gerry J. Jerome, David X. Marquez, and Steriani Elavsky (2004). "Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Volume 101 (Issue 9)
17.Andreas Plagemann, Thomas Harder, Matthias Brunn, Anja Harder, Katharina Roepke, Manon Wittrock-Staar, Thomas Ziska, Karen Schellong, Elke Rodekamp,Kerstin Melchior and Joachim W. Dudenhausen (2009). " Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin promoter methylation becomes altered by early overfeeding: an epigenetic model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome." The Journal of Physiology. Volume 587 (Issue 20)
18.Sridevi Devaraj, Janice Wang-Polagruto, John Polagruto, Carl L. Keen, Ishwarlal Jialal (2008). " High-fat, energy-dense, fast-food–style breakfast results in an increase in oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome." Metabolism. Volume 57 (Issue 6)
19.Jytee Halkjær, Claus Holst, and Thorkild I.A. Sorensen. op. cit.  
20.Paul A. Trout  (1997). “Disengaged Students and the Decline of Academic Standards.” Academic Questions. page 46
21.Shakespeare (1982). “Hamlet.” Methuen New York. page 387.
22.Paul A. Trout. op. cit. page 50
23.Pamela I. Ansburg (2001). “Students’ Expectations of Workload and Grade Distribution by Class Difficulty.” ERIC: Institute of Education Sciences.
24.Paul A. Trout. op. cit. page 51
25.Henry A. Giroux (2012). “Education and the Crisis of Public Values.” Peter Lang International Academic Publishers.
26.Henry A. Giroux. ibid. page 9
27.Rachel N. Lipari, Arthur Hughes (2015). "Trends in heroin use in the United States: 2002 to 2013." SAMHSA.
28.Henry A. Giroux op. cit. page 10
29. Norman O. Brown. “Life against Death.” Wesleyan University Press. Connecticut 1985. page 63-65
30.Shakespeare (1952). “A Mid-Summer Night’s Dream.” Shakespeare: Complete works. New York Harcourt, Brace, in world ink. page 536. 

       Ron Shane ND PhD OMD MFA   Dr. Shane is a world-leading authority in body mind consciousness studies. See Bio section for more information about Dr. Shane.